Κυριακή, 17 Αυγούστου, 2014
The mountains look on Marathon,
And Marathon looks on the sea.
And musing there an hour alone,
I dreamed that Greece might still be free,
For standing on the Persian’s grave,
I could not deem myself a slave.
(Lord Byron, The Isles of Greece)
In his 1846 review of Grote’s “History of Greece”, John Stuart Mill wrote:
“The interest of Grecian history is unexhausted and inexhaustible. As a mere story, hardly any other portion of authentic history can compete with it. Its characters, its situations, the very march of its incidents, are epic. It is an heroic poem, of which the personages are peoples. It is also, of all histories of which we know so much, the most abounding in consequences to us who now live. The true ancestors of the European nations (it has been well said) are not those from whose blood they are sprung, but those from whom they derive the richest portion of their inheritance. The battle of Marathon, even as an event in English history, is more important than the battle of Hastings. If the issue of that day had been different, the Britons and the Saxons might still have been wandering in the woods.”
The Battle of Marathon is important for many reasons. Lord Byron and John Stuart Mill stated some of the them in the passages quated above.
It also has many layers.
The military layer is one of them.
The other is Persians against Greeks.
There is also one though that is not apparent at first sight. Democracy against oligarchy and aristocracy.
Democracy in Athens
One clarification is required at the outset. The Athenian Polis included all of Attica, not only the geographic area of Athens.
Marathon is one of the areas of Attica, and thus was part of the Athenian Polis.
Most historians agree that Democracy in Athens was established by Cleisthenes in 508/507.
In 510 BC, with the help of the Spartans, Cleisthenes overthrew Hippias, the ruler of Athens, son of tyrant Peisistratos, who ruled the City until 528 BC.
But he did not rule straight away, because the Spartans favoured his rival, Isagoras, and they expelled Cleisthenes from the city.
After returning to power, Cleisthenes made some significant reforms that strengthened democratic rule (8):
- He established legislative bodies run by individuals chosen by lottery, a true test of real democracy, rather than kinship or heredity.
- He reorganized the Boule, created with 400 members under Solon, so that it had 500 members, 50 from each tribe.
- He also introduced the bouletic oath, “To advise according to the laws what was best for the people”.
- The court system (Dikasteria — law courts) was reorganized and had from 201–5001 jurors selected each day, up to 500 from each tribe.
It was the role of the Boule to propose laws to the assembly of voters, who convened in Athens around forty times a year for this purpose. The bills proposed could be rejected, passed or returned for amendments by the assembly.
It is important to stress that Democracy did not arrive in Athens suddenly. The wheels were set in motion in the 7th century. It just so happens that it all came together when Cleisthenes ruled.
Given the nature of direct democratic rule in Athens, it comes as no surprise that Hippias did not fit in. It was nothing personal. Athenian democracy was incompatible with oligarchy and monarchy. Hippias had no chance to rule Athens again, if this was left to the Athenians to decide.
For this reason during the Ionian Revolt, which I will briefly discuss in the next section, he decided to join the Persians and return to Athens as a victor with the Persian army and navy.
The Ionian Revolt (499-493 BC)
The Ionian Revolt is the precursor of the Greek-Persian Wars on Greek soil and sea.
By the time of Darius I, the Persian empire covered most of southwest Asia and Asia Minor, reaching as far as the easternmost boundaries of Europe. The Persians demanded tribute and respect from all they dominated. (7)
The Ionian revolt started at 499, when the Ionian cities of Minor Asia rebelled against the Persian King Darius.
The Athenians and Eretrians sent a task force of 25 triremes to Asia Minor to aid the revolt. (5)
From 499 to 494 there were a lot of campaigns without any decisive effect.
By 494, the Persian army and navy had regrouped and made straight for the rebellion epicentre at Miletus. (6)
The decisive confrontation took place at sea, off the small island of Lade. The Persians convinced the Samians to defect, leaving the Ionian navy exposed. Although the Ionians and their allies fought bravely, they lost to the Persians. This was the beginning of the end of the Ionian revolt.
During the revolt, the deposed tyrant of Athens Hippias, fled to the Persian Palace and became an “advisor” to the Persian King Darius I.
We will meet Hippias again in the battle of Marathon.
When it all ended, in 493, one thing was certain. Darius wanted revenge. The Athenians and Eretrians had to pay for their role in the Ionian Revolt.
The first Persian invasion of Greece (492 – 490 BC)
The Persians invaded Greece because they wanted to punish Athens and Eretria for their role in the Ionian Revolt. Darius I also wanted to expand his control of the Eastern Mediterranean.
There were two campaigns in the first Persian invasion of Greece.
The first in 492 under Mardonius, saw the Persians take over Thrace and Macedon. In 491, Darius sent ambassadors to all Greek Cities, demanding their submission. Almost all cities submitted, except Athens and Sparta. Darius knew that he had to proceed to the next campaign.
In 490, under the command of his nephew Artaphernes and the Median admiral Datis, this Persian armada allegedly consisted of 600 ships (troop and transport, provided and manned by subject allies) and an unspecified number of Persian infantry and cavalry, described by Herodotus as ‘powerful and well-equipped’.
Starting from the island of Naxos, the Persians captured a number of other Greek cities and islands en route, and besieged Eretria which succumbed after six days, weakened from within by party political strife and a pro-Persian faction which betrayed the city. A few days later, the Persians sailed for Attica, ‘in high spirits and confident’ (Herodotus). Marathon was selected as the best spot to invade, being closest to Eretria and also the most suitable for cavalry manoeuvres. At least, such was the advice of Hippias who was with this Persian force which he hoped would restore him to power. It was here that his father Pisistratus had landed in 546 for his successful bid for the tyranny in Athens. (1)
Liberty and Equality of civic rights are brave spirit stirring things, and they who, while under the yoke of a despot, had been no better men of war than any of their neighbours, as soon as they were free, became the foremost men of all. For each felt that in fighting for a free commonwealth, he fought for himself and whatever he took in hand he was willing to do the work thoroughly. Herodotus
The Athenian Army
The army was managed by the polemarch, together with ten generals, one elected from each of the tribes. Starting with Kleisthenes, there were ten tribes in the Polis of Athens, therefore there were 10 generals, one elected from each tribe. In their attempt to ensure equality, the Athenians by the 5th century allotted most offices, even the highest archonships. Some positions, however, such as treasurers and the water commissioner, required “technical” knowledge and could not be left to the luck of the draw; these remained elective.
The generalships are the clearest example of this practice, of electing rather than allotting, and many of the leading statesmen of Athens held the position. Perikles, for instance, never served as eponymous archon-nominally the highest post in the state-but he was elected general of his tribe year after year, and from that position he guided Athenian affairs for decades.
The army was made of oplites (men bearing arms), who were Athenian citizens. All oplites were volunteers, and were providing for their arms and equipment. It was considered one of the highest honors to be able to fight for the Polis, as became known to the world with Pericles’ Funeral Oration.
At the time of the Marathon Battle, each tribe (phyle) nominated 1,000 oplites.
Contrary to the Athenian Army, the Persian Army consisted mostly of people who were conscripted from various occupied territories, including Ionia. Only the officers were Persians.
From a technical perspective, the Athenian Army had two major disadvantages compared to the Persian. The Athenians had no cavalry and no arch men.
In overall charge of the Athenian Army was the War-Archon (polemarch), Callimachus, who had been elected by the whole citizen body. (5)
Initially there was a big disagreement among the generals. Should they go to Marathon and battle the Persians, or should they stay in Athens and protect the city?
The argument was won by Miltiades, who convinced Callimachus that they should battle the Persians in Marathon.
Militiades was one of the ten generals under the polemarch, but after the crucial decision was made, by the consensus of the generals he was placed in command. The win in Marathon is attributed to Miltiades’ genius by many historians.
The forces of the Athenians and the Plataeans totaled only 11,000 men (the column of the Plataeans was 1,000 strong) – the Persian force was perhaps 20-25,000 strong. (11)
While the two armies were facing each other on the Marathon plain, the Spartans were celebrating a period of peace and could not move to the aid of the Athenians before the pweriod was over, somewhere around the middle of August 490.
Therefore, it appears to have been to the benefit of the Athenians to wait.
We do not know who attacked first. But the battle bagan before the Spartans even left their city to march to Athens.
Early in the morning of the batle, the Persians followed Hippias’ advice and sent most of their ships and cavalry to Phaleron, the port of Athens. They thus thought that after the battle in Marathon they could easily capture the city that was not defended, as all armed units were in Marathon. This journey from Marathon to Phaleron would take 6 to 8 hours.
The Athenians were informed by Ionian soldiers in the Persian Army that the fleet had sailed and Miltiades decidd to attack.
The battle started at arounf 05:30 in the morning and it was over in three hours.
At the time of the battle commencing there was only around one mile (1.5 kilometres) separating both armies.
The formation of the Greek army was one with the central armed forces having soldiers in rank of 4 while the flanking forces had soldiers in rank of 8. This formation then either marched or ran (most likely marched) the distance to the Persian forces and stopped some 200 metres short of the Persian army.
At this point the Greek army went into a mad run to the enemy. Upon battle commencing the Greek middle ranks of four were pushed back slightly, but the flanks routed the Persians flanks that then fled back to their ships.
After the battle was over, and decidely won by the Athenians, Miltiades left a small contingent to guard the area so that the Persians would not be able to land again in Marathon, and with the rest of the Army marched back to Athens. They made it on time, so that when the PErsian navy arrived in Phaleron, they found the Athenian Army ready to welcome them.
After an assessment of the situation, the Persians decided to abort the mission to conquer Athens and sailed back to their land.
Hippias is said to have died at Lemnos, on the journey back “home”.
Herodotus on the Battle of Marathon (10)
112. The lines were drawn up, and the sacrifices were favorable; so the Athenians were permitted to charge, and they advanced on the Persians at a run. There was not less than eight stades in the no man’s-land between the two armies. The Persians, seeing them coming at a run, made ready to receive them; but they believed that the Athenians were possessed by some very desperate madness, seeing their small numbers and their running to meet their enemies without support of cavalry or archers. That was what the barbarians thought; but the Athenians, when they came to hand-to-hand fighting, fought right worthily. They were the first Greeks we know of to charge their enemy at a run and the first to face the sight of the Median dress and the men who wore it. For till then the Greeks were terrified even to hear the names of the Medes.
113. The fight at Marathon went on for a long time, and in the center the barbarians won, where the Persians themselves and the Sacae were stationed. At this point they won, and broke the Greeks, and pursued them inland. But on each wing the Athenians and the Plataeans were victorious, and, as they conquered, they let flee the part of the barbarian army they had routed, and, joining their two wings together, they fought the Persians who had broken their center; and then the Athenians won the day. As the Persians fled, the Greeks followed them, hacking at them, until they came to the sea. Then the Greeks called for fire and laid hold of the ships.
114. At this point of the struggle the polemarch [Callimachus] was killed, having proved himself a good man and true, and, of the generals, there died Stesilaus, son of Thrasylaus. And Cynegirus, the son of Euphorion, gripped with his hand the poop of one of the ships and had his hand chopped off with an axe and so died, and many renowned Athenians also.
115. In this fashion the Athenians captured seven of the ships. With the rest of the fleet, the barbarians, backing water, and taking from the island where they had left them the slaves from Eretria, rounded Cape Sunium, because they wished to get to Athens before the Athenians could reach it. There was a slander prevalent in Athens that they got this idea from a contrivance of the Alcmaeonidae, in accord with a covenant they had made with the Persians, showed a signal, the holding-up of a shield, for those barbarians who were on shipboard.
116. They rounded Sunium, all right; but the Athenians, rushing with all speed to defend their city, reached it first, before the barbarians came, and encamped, moving from one sanctuary of Heracles – the one at Marathon – to another, the one at Cynosarges. The barbarians anchored off Phalerum – for in those days that was the harbor of Athens – and, after riding at anchor there for a while, they sailed back, off to Asia.
117. In this battle of Marathon there died, of the barbarians, about six thousand four hundred men, and, of the Athenians, one hundred and ninety-two. Those were the numbers of the fallen on both sides. . . .
Aeschylus and Cavafy
One of Marathon’s more renowned combatants, the ancient Greek playwright Aeschylus, who ultimately was recognized as the ‘Father of Tragedy’ purportedly composed his own epitaph. An indication of the battle’s significance is that he did not mention any of the great works in his distinguished oeuvre, only of his exploits on this highly venerated battlefield.
Beneath this stone lies Aeschylus, son of Euphorion, the Athenian,
who perished in the wheat-bearing land of Gela;
of his noble prowess the grove of Marathon can speak,
or the long-haired Persian who knows it well
Αἰσχύλον Εὐφορίωνος Ἀθηναῖον τόδε κεύθει
μνῆμα καταφθίμενον πυροφόροιο Γέλας·
ἀλκὴν δ’ εὐδόκιμον Μαραθώνιον ἄλσος ἂν εἴποι
καὶ βαθυχαιτήεις Μῆδος ἐπιστάμενος
Ο Αισχύλος, ο Αθηναίος γιός του Ευφορίωνα βρισκεται σε τουτο το μνημα
Έκλεισε τα μάτια στη Γέλα, την εύφορη σε δημητριακά
Τη δοκιμασμένη του γενναιότητα μαρτυρεί το δάσος του Μαραθώνα
και ο πυκνόμαλλος Μήδος που τη γνώρισε καλά
The inscription on his graveyard signifies according to Castoriadis (4) the primary importance of “belonging to the City”, of the solidarity that existed within the collective body of soldiers – citizens.
Castoriadis (4) also mentions the actor in Cavafy’s “The yound men of Sidon” who protests that the inscription on Aeschylus’ grave is unacceptable:
“…to set down for your memorial
merely that as an ordinary soldier, one of the herd,
you too fought against Datis and Artaphernis.”
(translation Edmund Keeley/Philip Sherrard)
Marathon Memorial Stele – Epigram by Simonides of Ceos
- Ἑλλήνων προμαχοῦντες Ἀθηναῖοι Μαραθῶνι
- χρυσοφόρων Μήδων ἐστόρεσαν δύναμιν
- Fighting in the forefront of the Hellenes, the Athenians at Marathon
- destroyed the might of the gold-bearing Medes.
(1) Re-running Marathon, Bruce Baldwin, History Today, 1998
(2) THE FIFTEEN DECISIVE BATTLES OF THE WORLD by Edward Shepherd Creasy 1851
(3) The Battle of Marathon, Written by Peter Fitzgerald
(4) Castoriadis, Cornelius. “What Makes Greece, 1. From Homer to Heraclitus.” (2004)
(5) Battle of Marathon, Wikipedia
(6) Battle of Lade, Wikipedia
(7) Battle of Marathon, Historynet
(8) Cleisthenes. Wikipedia
(10) The History of Herodotus, trans. David Grene, (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987), pp.454-456 (sourced from the “History Guide“).
(11) Lectures on Ancient and Medieval History. Lecture 7. The History Guild.
Venetokleion Gymnasium of Rhodes – Class of 1968-1973 / Βενετόκλειο Γυμνάσιο Ρόδου – Η Τάξη του 1968 – 1973
Σάββατο, 2 Αυγούστου, 2014
Εισαγωγη – Introduction
Σημερα κλεινω εξι χρονια απο την ημερα που αρχισα αυτο το μπλογκ, και ανασυρω απο την μνημη την μαθητεια μου στο Βενετοκλειο Γυμνασιο Ροδου, απο το 1968 εως το 1973.
Today is my sixth WordPress anniversary. I started this blog six years ago, and I felt necessary to reminisce about my Gymnasium in Rhodes, where I grew up. Its name is Venetokleion and is still operational. This post features photos I took in excursion with the teachers and the class.
Εχω υπεροχες αναμνησεις απο το Βενετοκλειο για δυο λογους.
This is a time and space specific post, and language is crucial. The post must be in Greek. So I stop here with the English part, and wish the visitor a happy visit.
Ο πρωτος ειναι οτι γνωρισα εξαιρετικους ανθρωπους, συμμαθητες, συμμαθητριες, καθηγητες και καθηγητριες.
Ο δευτερος ειναι οτι πηρα τις πρωτες συγκινησεις της μαθησης, μαζι με καποιες αλλες.
Θα αναφερθω στους συμμαθητες και τις συμμαθητριες με τα μικρα τους ονοματα, ενω στους καθηγητες και τις καθηγητριες και με τα επιθετα τους. Οσοι διαβασουν αυτο το κειμενο και δουν τις φωτογραφιες θα αναγνωρισουν τους συμμαθητες και τις συμμαθητριες.
Η αναφορα σε επιλεγμενους καθηγητες και καθηγητριες με τα πληρη ονοματα τους οφειλεται κυριως στο οτι θελω να υπαρχει καπου στο διαδικτυο γραπτα και επιφατικα το υπεροχο εργο που επιτελεσαν οι ανθρωποι αυτοι. Ετσι απλα.
Ζητω προκαταβολικα συγγνωμη, αλλα καποιους απο τους απεικονιζομενους δεν τους ενθυμουμαι με τα ονοματα τους.
Μια αλλη διασταση που επιβαλλει ο χρονος ειναι η χρηση του παρελθοντος στην αφηγηση και τα ρηματα. Αυτο βεβαια δεν σημαινει οτι καποιος δεν ζει πια. Απλα αναφερομαι στο παρελθον και σε αυτα που θυμαμαι απο τοτε.
Οι φωτογραφιες ειναι ολες απο το αρχειο μου, οι περισσοτερες παρμενες σε σχολικες εκδρομες.
Αρρενων, αλλα και … ολιγον θηλεων
Την εποχη εκεινη το Βενετοκλειο ητανε Γυμνασιο Αρρενων. Επειδη ομως η πρακτικη κατευθυνση σπουδων (το πρακτικο) υπηρχε μονο στο Βενετοκλειο, στις τρεις τελευταιες ταξεις (Τεταρτη, Πεμπτη και Εκτη) ερχοντουσαν να φοιτησουν στο Βενετοκλιεο και μαθητριες, απο το Καζουλειο Γυμνασιο Θηλεων. Θυμαμαι οτι η πρωτη φουρνια απο το θηλεων ητανε η ταξη της αδελφης μου. Ακολουθησαμε εμεις.
Ετσι λοιπον στην φωτογραφια που βλεπετε παραπανω, απεικονιζονται ορισμενοι νεοι με ορισμενες νεες.
Οι σχεσεις μας ητανε πολυ καλες. Τις ειχαμε τις κοπελλες στα οπα οπα. Ομολογω δε οτι ουδεποτε καταλαβα για ποιον λογο χωριζανε τα παιδια σε αρρενες και θηλεις στα σχολεια.
Μεσα σε μια περιοδο εξι χρονων, ειναι επομενο να εχει κανεις πολλους καθηγητες, και ολιγες καθηγητριες. Τωρα που το αναπολω, οι καθηγητριες ητανε πολυ λιγοτερες.
Καποιο ομως ξεχωρισαν και παραμενουν στην μνημη μου εντονα και με σεβασμο και αγαπη.
Ξεκινω λοιπον απο τον Γιωργο Μανδραγο, Φυσικο, που παρολον οτι δεν τον ειχαμε για πολυ στην ταξη, τον αγαπησα πολυ. Ημουνα και συμμαθητης με τον γυιο του τον Μιχαλη Μανδραγο, που χαθηκε προωρα το 2012. Ο Γιωργος Μανδραγος ητανε αυθορμητος, απλος, και αξιαγαπητος. Πηγαινα πολλες φορες στο σπιτι του, γιατι παιζαμε με τον Μιχαλη. Με τον Μιχαλη πηγαιναμε μαζι και στον Ναυτικο Ομιλο Ροδου, Ν.Ο.Ρ. στην ΕΛΛΗ, οπου ιστιοπλοουσε με σκαφη τυπου “Οπτιμιστ”. Μετειχε και σε αγωνες, και πηγαινε πολυ καλα.
Συνεχιζω με την μεγαλη μου αδυναμια, τον Μαθηματικο Γιωργο Μανιατακη. Ισως ενας απο τους λογους που αγαπησα τα μαθηματικα ητανε ο Μανιατακης. Εξαιρετικος δασκαλος, με οξυτατη αισθηση του χιουμορ και σεβασμο προς ολους τους μαθητες. Με τη χαρα της ζωης, σοβαροτητα και μετρο. Εξαιρετικος ανθρωπος και δασκαλος.
Τωρα ενθυμουμαι και τον αλλον αγαπημενο μου μαθηματικο, τον Αντωνη Μπαϊραμη απο την Καλυμνο, που χαθηκε προωρα. Ειμασταν στην ιδια ταξη με την αδελφη του την Ποπη, που εικονιζεται στην φωτογραφια της εισαγωγης.
Ενας αλλος αξεχαστος δασκαλος, ητανε ο Σεβαστιανος Πολιτης, Φιλολογος. Ο,τι εμαθα στα αρχια το χρωσταω στον Πολιτη και την μητερα μου. Ο Πολιτης ητανε ανθρωπος χαμηλων τονων, και δημιουργουσε την περιεργεια να μαθεις τι κρυβεται πισω απο τις λεξεις. Εξοχος! Περναγε η ωρα και δεν το καταλαβαινα.
Και μια και ζουμε σε κοσμο αντιθεσεων, δεν μπορω να μην αναφερω εναν αλλο φιλολογο, που ητανε μαλλον κακολογος. Το τι φωνες ακουγαμε δεν περιγραφεται. Και ειχε πει και το απαραμιλλο “τι νομιζετε οτι ειναι ο ανθρωπος; μια λεκανη εντερα”.
Ο θεολογος Κωνσταντινιδης θα μου μεινει αξεχαστος για την ευγενεια και την προσχαρη φυση του. Και το λεγω αυτο επειδη ειχαμε και εναν αλλο θεολογο που μας ειχε τρελανει στις φαπες. Εκρηκτικος τυπος, ξεσπουσε ξαφνικα και οποιον παρει ο … χαρος. Σε αντιθεση λοιπον με τον ευεξαπτο αλλον, ο Κωνσταντινιδης ητανε οαση. Παντα με το χαμογελο. Και μαθαμε και ολιγα θρησκευτικα.
Πολλες φορες οταν θυμομαστε κατι απο την νεοτητα μας, εχομε την ταση να υποθετομε ή και να δηλωνουμε ευθεως οτι τοτε ητανε καλα τα πραγματα, ενω σημερα… Δεν ξερω πως ειναι σημερα τα πραγματα, αλλα τοτε που ημουνα στο Βενετοκλειο, χωρις να ειναι ολα τελεια, μαθαιναμε. Ολοι μαθαιναμε. Και δεν παπαγαλιζαμε. Και μπορουσε ο καθενας να τα βγαλει περα χωρις φροντιστηρια. Και οι καθηγητες νοιαζοντουσαν. Υπηρχανε βεβαια και εξαιρεσεις, ολιγες ομως.
Παρολο που δεν τον εχω σε φωτογραφια, ο Βασιλης Λεβεντης, Γυμναστης, ητανε απο τους ανθρωπους που με τον ενθουσιασμο και την καλη καρδια του με ειχε εμπνευσει. Δεν ημουνα ποτε καλος στη Γυμναστικη. Ομως προσπαθουσα. Ο Βασιλης Λεβεντης υποστηριξε την προσπαθεια μου. Και οχι μονο τη δικη μου. Ολων των παιδιων που δεν ημασταν αστερια. Πριν μερικα χρονια μιλησαμε σοτ τηλεφωνο, βρισκοτανε στις Καλυθιες και τα ειπαμε για λιγο.
Θεωρω επισης απαραιτητη την μνεια στον Έξαρχο των Γυμναστων, τον Χρηστο Παλαιολογο. Που με την βραχνη, μπασα φωνη του μας εβαζε στη σειρα.
Θα ητανε παραλειψη να μην αναφερθω και στον εξαιρετο Μανωλη Παπαμανωλη, που τον θυμαμαι ως Γυμνασιαρχη. Εξαιρετικος ανθρωπος, χαμηλων τονων, παντοτε με εγνοια για τους μαθητες και το σχολειο.
Σε συγκριση με τους αντρες, οι γυναικες στο Γυμνασιο ητανε πολυ λιγοτερες.
Περιττο να αναφερω οτι η συγκινηση των αγοριων ανεβαινε σε υψηλα επιπεδα οταν η καθηγητρια ητανε νεα και ωραια.
Ειχαμε βεβαια ολον τον σεβασμο στις αλλες καθηγητριες, ομως η προτιμηση μας ητανε σαφως στις νεες.
Θυμαμαι στη δευτερα γυμνασιου ειχε ελθει μια νεαρα καθηγητρια γαλλικων. Ολοι θελαμε να μαθουμε γαλλικα.
Βεβαια εκεινη την εποχη οι ξενες γλωσσες στο γυμνασιο ητανε ανεκδοτο. Οι καθηγητες και καθηγητριες ελαχιστες, που μετετιθεντο συνεχως.
Με την καθηγητρια μας των γαλλικων δεν θυμαμαι καν αν κλεισαμε ολοκκληρη τη χρονια.
Ομως η συγκινηση θα παραμειενει αξεχαστη στο υποσυνειδητο των 14 ετων.
Οπως ειναι φυσικο, με καποιους απο τους συμμαθητες ειμασταν πιο κοντα, μια παρεα ας πουμε.
Ανακαλω πρωτο τον Μιχαλη Σταματιου, ενα χρυσο παιδι που χαθηκε προωρα και αυτος.
Ο Μιχαλης Σταματιου ητανε ενας υπεραθλητης και ενας υπεροχος ανθρωπος. Μεσα σε ολα, και καλος μαθητης. Παντα με το χαμογελο. Τον θυμαμαι σα να ειμασταν μαζυ εχθες. Πριν απο μερικα χρονια συναντησα στην Αθηνα ολως τυχαιως εναν συγγενη του και τιμησαμε την μνημη του.
Το γυμνασιο της εποχης εκεινης ειχε και μια ιδιομορφια γεωγραφικου τυπου. Πολλα παιδια ερχοντουσαν απο τα χωρια με λεωφορειο το πρωι και γυρναγανε στο χωριο τους το απογευμα.
Ειχαμε λοιπον ενα εξαιρετικο μιγμα απο παιδια της πολης και των χωριων.
Η μεγαλη ομαδα απο τα χωρια ητανε οι Αρχαγγελιτες. Ερχοντουσαν συντεταγμενοι και παντα χαρουμενοι.
Το Αρχαγγελιτικο χιουμορ ειναι αξεπεραστο. Δωρικο αλλα και Ιωνικο μαζυ.
Το τι ιστοριες εχω ακουσει δεν λεγεται.
Ο Κλεοβουλος ερχοτανε απο τη Σορωνη. Τον συναντησα προσφατα και τα ειπαμε. Παντα με ευγενεια και μετρημενος.
Ειχαμε βεβαια και τις συναγωνιστικες μας διαδικασιες, παντα στα πλαισια του “ευ αγωνιζεσαθι”.
Ενας συναγωνιστης ητανε ο Λεωνιδας, σοβαρος και μετρημενος, και ταλαντουχος.
Παντα τον θυμαμαι με αγαπη. Ειχαμε μιλησει και στο τηλεφωνο πριν μερικα χρονια.
Ομως αυτος που εχει παραμεινει παντα κοντα, παρολη την γεωγραφικη αποσταση, ειναι ο παιδικος φιλος, συμμαθητης και υπεροχος ανθρωπος, ο Γιωργος. Συναντηθηκαμε προσφατα στην Αθηνα και περασαμε πολλες ωρες μαζι.
Το 2005 ειχα κατεβει στη Ροδο και με πρωτοβουλια του Γιωργου συναντηθηκαμε παρα πολλοι απο την ταξη του Βενετοκλειου.
Η συναντηση αυτη θα μου μεινει αξεχαστη.
Κι αν κατι θελω κασι το εκφραζω και απο εδω, ειναι να ξαναβρεθουμε οι συμμαθητες του Βενετοκλειου που αποφοιτησαμε το 1973.
Θα ειναι μεγαλη χαρα και τιμη μου.
Ευχαριστω σε Βενετοκλειο, ευχαριστω σε Ροδο!
Αν καπου η μνημη μου επαιξε παιχνιδια, προσκαλω την ευγενικη αναγνωστρια να με βοηθησει, υποδεικνυοντας την αστοχια, και – αν μπορει – προτεινοντας και την επανορθωση.
Σάββατο, 12 Ιουλίου, 2014
“Only ruins remain and the beauty of the natural environment.” Lord Byron
Γύρισα στα ξανθά παιδιάτικα λημέρια,
γύρισα στο λευκό της νιότης μονοπάτι,
γύρισα για να ιδώ το θαυμαστό παλάτι,
για με χτισμένο απ’ τών Ερώτων τ’ άγια χέρια.
Το μονοπάτι το ‘πνιξαν οι αρκουδοβάτοι,
και τα λημέρια τα ‘καψαν τα μεσημέρια,
κ’ ένας σεισμός το ‘ρριξε κάτου το παλάτι,
και μέσ’ στα ερείπια τώρα και στ’ αποκαΐδια
απομένω παράλυτος· σαύρες και φίδια
μαζί μου αδερφοζούν οι λύπες και τα μίση·
και το παλάτι ένας σεισμός το ‘χει γκρεμίσει.
Ασάλευτη ζωή, 1904
‘Απαντα, τομ. Γ´, σελ. 72
I RETURNED TO MY GOLDEN PLAYGROUNDS,
I RETURNED TO MY WHITE BOYHOOD TRAIL,
I RETURNED TO SEE THE WONDROUS PALACE,
BUILT JUST FOR ME BY LOVE’S DIVINE WAYS.
BLACKBERRY BUSHES NOW COVER THE BOYHOOD TRAIL,
AND THE MIDAY SUNS HAVE BURNED THE PLAYGROUNDS,
AND A TREMOR HAS DESTROYED MY PALACE SO RARE,
AND IN THE MIDST OF FALLEN WALLS AND BURNED
TIMBERS, I REMAIN LIFELESS; LIZARDS AND SNAKES
WITH ME NOW LIVE THE SORROWS AND THE HATES;
AND OF MY PALACE A BROKEN MASS NOW REMAINS
Translated by A. Moskios
On the question of the Greek poet’s relation to his tradition, it has always seemed to me that the Greek poet has an advantage over his Anglo-Saxon counterpart who makes use of Greek mythology and sometimes even of Greek landscape. I remember years ago when I was writing a thesis on what I thought were English influences in the poetry of Cavafy and Seferis, I asked you about certain images that crop up in your landscape, for example, the symbolic meaning of the statues that appear in your work. You turned to me and said: “But those are real statues. They existed in a landscape I had seen.” What I think you were saying is that you always start with the fact of a living, actual setting and move from there to any universal meaning that might be contained in it.
An illustration of that from someone who is a specialist in classical statues came the other day from an English scholar who was lecturing about the statuary of the Parthenon. I went up to congratulate him after his lecture, and he said to me, as I remember: “But you have a line which expresses something of what I meant when you say ‘the statues are not the ruins—we are the ruins.’” I mean I was astonished that a scholar of his caliber was using a line from me to illustrate a point.
The statues are not the ruins—we are the ruins
From an Interview to “The Paris Review”, 2005 (epopteia)
“Unless we can relate it to ourselves personally, history will always be more or less an abstraction and its content the clash of impersonal forces and ideas. Although generalizations are necessary to order this vast, chaotic material, they kill the individual detail that tends to stray from the schema. . . . Afterwards all that remains of entire centuries is a kind of popular digest.”
Czesław Miłosz, Native Realm
Ruins come out of ruins. The story of the Acropolis is a good example. The original temple of Athena has been destroyed at least nine times in its two-and-a-half-thousand-year history. Burned by Heruli barbarians in ad 267, it was restored by Julian in ad 360, and then in 438 Christian priests hacked away at the nude sculptures and crowned the temple with a cross. The Ottoman Turks in 1456 replaced the cross with a minaret. There are still-bitter feelings about the damage done by the Venetians in 1687 when they bombed the Parthenon on September 26 under Francesco Morosini. Then there was also the sale of seventy-five sculptures by the Ottomans to Lord Elgin, the British ambassador to Greece, in 1802.
Adrianne Kalfopoulou, Ruin
You said: “…Wherever I turn, wherever I happen to look,
I see the black ruins of my life, here,
where I’ve spent so many years, wasted them, destroyed them totally.”
Translated by Edmund Keeley/Philip Sherrard
Σάββατο, 24 Μαΐου, 2014
Αισθανομαι βαθεια συγκινηση καθως τα δακτυλα μου θωπευουν τα πληκτρα και αρχεται η συγγραφη αυτης της επικολυρικης πραγματειας.
Εχοντας επιβιωσει την προεκλογικη εκστρατεια περιπου 40 σχηματισμων που διεκδικουν την ψηφο των Ελληνων και Ελληνιδων στις Ευρωεκλογες, αλλα και την πρωτη εκλογικη αναμετρηση της Κυριακης 18ης Μαϊου 2014 για την αναδειξη τοπικων αρχοντων,
Ξεκιναω με μια συντομη ιστορικη αναδρομη.
Οι προηγουμενες εκλογες για το ευρωπαϊκο κοινοβουλιο εγιναν στις 6 Ιουνιου 2009.
Πρωτο κομμα αναδειχτηκε το ΠΑΣΟΚ με ποσοστο 36,64% .
Δευτερο κομμα ηταν η Νεα Δημοκρατια, με ποσοστο 32,29%.
Ο ΣΥΡΙΖΑ πηρε τοτε 4,70%.
Αυτα για να μην ξεχναμε.
Εκτοτε πολλα συνεβησαν.
Η χωρα καταστραφηκε και παραμενει κατεστραμμενη, οσο και αν προσπαθουν καποιοι να μας πεισουν περι αναγεννησεως εκ της τεφρας.
Η Ελλας δεν ειναι ο Ανεγεννωμενος εκ της τεφρας Φοινιξ!
Ασε που ο Φοινιξ και η τεφρα του παραπεμπουν εις την 21ην Απριλιου 1967.
(ουδεμιαν σχεσιν εχουσιν τα ανωτερω με την επιχειρησιν Φοινιξ της Αμερικανικης ΣΙΑ εις το Νοτιον Βιετναμ)
Επανερχομαι εις το προκειμενον.
Εχθες εκλεισαν οι προεκλογικες εκστρατειες.
Ο βασικος λογος ειναι οτι οταν εγω αρχιδολογω, το διατυμπανιζω και το διακηρυσσω.
Οι αρχιδολογουντες Ελληνες πολιτικοι προσπαθουν να μας πεισουν οτι ασχολουνται με το εθνος, την πατριδα, το καλο μας, και αλλα παρομοια.
Η Ελλας δεν εχει εξελθει του πελατοκεντρικου της πολιτικου συστηματος.
Οι πολιτικοι θεσμοι ειναι δομημενοι με τροπο που υπηρετει τον πελατοκεντρισμο.
Εν ταυτω και εν παραλληλω και την εξαρτηση απο τας μεγαλας δυναμεις (εν προκειμενω την μεγαλην Γερμανιαν).
Ο πελατοκεντρισμος λοιπον ζει και βασιλευει, ενω οι δημοκρατικοι θεσμοι φυλλοροουν.
Αυτα ομως δεν πρεπει να μας απασχολουν, αφου εχομεν πλεονασμα μας λενε μερικοι.
Πουλαμε τη δημοκρατια μας λοιπον και αγοραζομε πλεονασμα. Ενδιαφερον!!!
(περισσοτερον ενδιαφερον επειδη το πλεονασμα ειναι λογιστικον, και οχι πραγματικον)
Ετεθησαν ομως και ορισμενα πρωτοτυπα ζητηματα κατα την διαρκειαν της εκστρατειας, και εν τη καταληξει της.
Τι θα μας προστατευσει απο την αποσταθεροποιησιν την οποιαν επιδιωκουν οι απατριδες, οι κομμουνισται, οι ομοφυλοφιλοι, οι τσιγγανοι, ολα τα περιθωριακα στοιχεια, οι αλλοεθνεις, οι αλλοθρησκοι, αυτοι που θελουν να γινει τζαμι στην Αθηνα, οι μεταναστες, οι…. οι…..
(οσοι ενδιαφερεστε, να μελετησετε το γλωσσολογικον πονημα μου επι του πανδαματορος)
(μην βιαστειτε να απορριψετε την τοποθετησιν μου)
(δεν γνωριζετε τα μυστικα της βασκανιας)
(και οσοι τα γνωριζετε, δεν θυμαστε – γιατι δεν εχετε μνημη – τας πρακτικας των Αρχαιων Ημων Προγονων)
Εδω θα πρεπει να τονισω προς απαντας οτι ειμαι Ελληνας, απογονος Αρχαιων Ελληνων.
Ολοι οι τουρκοσποροι και προϊοντα αλλων τινων επιμιξεων να κανουνε πισω γιατι μιλαει τωρα η Αρχαια Ελλας!
Και η Αρχαια Ελλας εδιδαξεν και το σεξ.
Ως εκ τουτου, δεν ημπορω παρα να δεχθω οτι οι εκλογες αυτες θα ειναι καθαρα σεξουαλικες.
Καποιος γαμαει, καποιος γαμιεται. Εδω μπερδευεται βεβαια και ο ενικος με τον πληθυντικο, αλλα για να αποφυγω περιπλοκες, το αφηνω ετσι.
Μην προστρεξετε να μου πειτε για τις καταληξεις, αρσενικα θηλυκα, και τα λοιπα.
Ο,τι αρπαξει ο κωλος μας παιδια, εις το πεδιον της μαχης.
“Ποσο μ’ αρεσει ο τροπος που με …αμάς”
Θα εχομεν σεξ αυριον λοιπον.
Υπαρχει ομως ενα προβλημα.
Εαν εχομεν σεξ (που θα εχομεν) θα περιπεσομεν στο κατοπιν σε καταθλιψιν (Post-coital depression -tristesse).
Τι αντιδοτον πρεπει να λαβομεν;
Δια να κατανοησετε το προβλημα, ηδη πολλοι δηλωνουν (πρωτη η Αφροδιτη Σ) οτι αν βγει πρωτο ενα συμπαθες κομμα θα μεταναστευσουν.
Αυτο ομολογω δεν το εχω ξαναδει.
Ενταξει, ειπαμε, το ξερουμε, μετα το σεξ επερχεται η καταθλιψη.
Αλλα οχι και να φευγουμε απο τη χωρα μας για ενα “γαμησι”!
Τελος παντων, αβυσσος η ψυχη του ανθρωπου.
Καλη Ψηφο Συν-Ελληνες!
Κυριακή, 18 Μαΐου, 2014
I live in a small village called Kaletzi (or Vothon) 2 km east of the artificial lake of Marathon, in the Attica region of Greece.
This post is about the lake and the dam that created it in the early 1930s.
The Marathon area is more or less 40 km away from Athens, the capital of Greece. Today approximately 5 million people live in the Athens greater metropolitan area. There is plenty of water to accomodate the needs of this population.
This was not the case at the end of the 19th century.
Athens did not have regular water supply. Water was distributed to the population over a network of fountains and taps that were most of the time dry (1).
After the 1922 Minor Asia defeat of Greece and the exchange of populations with Turkey, it was estimated that the population of Athens would double. Something had to be done about the water supply.
The situation changed when the Marathon articifial lake was created, after the construction of the Marathon dam.
The Marathon dam was constructed by an American firm, Ulen & Company.
At this point I have to introduce Henry C. Ulen, the key person behind the company.
Henry Ulen was born in Lebanon, Indiana, USA, in 1861.
In 19th October 1912, The New York Times wrote in an article “Twenty five years ago (1887), Henry Ulen was a tramp.” (2)
In his own words, Ulen is quoted as saying “I was a pretty wild lad, and when I was sixteen, I run away from my home in Lebanon, Indiana.” (2)
But Henry Ulen was not destined to remain a tramp. He became a businessman, and a banker.
Ulen & Co. was incorporated under the laws of the State of Delaware on the 15 February 1922. (3) At the time Ulen had signed contracts to build water and sanitation facilities and railroad lines in South America. The newly incorporated company would finance and carry out the construction of these projects. In 1929 principal stockholders in the firm were American International Corporation, organized in 1915; Field, Globe and Company (a banking concern run by Marshall Field (son of the Marshall Field retail magnate)); Stone and Webster, one of the largest engineering contracting companies in the world; and Ulen Contracting Corp.(4)
Ulen & Co,. did not do business only in South America. In 1924, Ulen began work on water and sewer projects in ten Polish cities. (4)
On December 1924, after a restricted public tender, the Greek Government, and the Bank of Athens sign a contract with Ulen & Co. to build the Marathon dam and the pipeline to transfer the water to a water treatment facility in the Galatsi neighbourhood of Athens.. The project would be financed by issuing bonds worth a total of 10 million US dollars. A new entity was incorporated, the “Public Water Company of Athens Piraeus and Suburbs, with two shareholders. Bank of Athens (today the National Bank of Greece) had 50% of the shares and Ulen & Co. had the other 50%. The new entity would have the right to operate the water facilities it would build for a minimum of 22 years. Ulen got out by selling its shares to the National Bank of Greece in 1974. In article 22 of the relevant contract, it was stated that water would be priced in a way that would cover the new entity’s costs and profits.
Ulen & Co. also signed another contract with the Bank of Piraeus in order to incorporate the Greek Water Company (Ελληνική Εταιρεία Υδάτων ΑΕ). The company became the owner of the water distribution network of Athens, and the Municipality of Athens had from now on to pay the newly established company for the supply of water.
In 1928 Ulen & Co. landed a huge project in Persia to construct 800 miles of railroad from the capital of Teheran to the Persian Gulf. (4)
In 1931 an Indiana magazine reported that Ulen and Co. was the “largest engineering and contracting corporation in the world” with millions of dollars in contracts each year. (4)
The foundation stone for the Marathon dam was laid in October 1927 by Prime Minister Alexandros Zaimis; Venizelos was also present at the ceremony. (5)
The dam was completed in 1929 and solved the water supply problem of Athens.
The dam is a 54 m (177 ft) tall, 285 m (935 ft) long gravity dam with a crest width of 4.5 m (15 ft) and base width of 28 m (92 ft). (5)
The dam’s face and visible structure were also covered in the same Pentelikon marble that was used to construct the Parthenon. (5)
The dam would serve as the primary water supply for Athens until 1959, when water was pumped from Yliki lake.(5)
1. Βρύσες, κρήνες και νερό νεράκι… (Fountains, taps, but no water)
2. Banker saw world first as a tramp. The New York Times, 19 October 1912.
3. Delaware concern to carry on South American concern. The New York Times, 16 February 1922.
5. Marathon Dam, wikipedia.
Κυριακή, 11 Μαΐου, 2014
Cod fishing has its history. Like everything else. Even a butterfly in Costa Rica has history, eventhough its life is as short as two days.
The inspiration for writing this is twofold: first of all, I like eating cod; second, I read morcels of cod fishing’s history in Fernand Braudel’s masterpiece “The Structures of Everyday Life: Civilisation and Capitalism, 15th – 18th Century”, and I liked it. So I got to write about cod, because I like eating it, and history, because I like reading it.
The topic is huge, so the piece is short. In this case being short enables the article to see the light of day.
Otherwise, it would remain in the depths of the box with unfulfilled tasks.
In shortening it, I had to limit the fishing area to Terra Nova, off the Northeastern Coast of Canada’a mainland.
But this will not limit the story to unfold.
The Northeastern territory of Canada, Newfoundland, was for almost 500 years since 1497 the area in the Atlantic where cod was fished in large quantities.
Until 1992, when the Canadian Government banned cod fishing in Newfoundland.
This decree ended more than 500 years of cod fishing in the area of Newfoundland.
…(the ban) put an estimated 30,000 people out of work and escalated the exodus of people from rural Newfoundland. It was the single largest layoff off of workers in Canadian history. Some social scientists say more than 70,000 people have left the bays, coves and outports of the province since. (2)
But how did it all start?
The name of the person who allegedly discovered Newfoundland is Giovanni Caboto. Born in Venice in 1450, Giovanni went to England and in 1496 he got the necessary sponsoring from King Henry VII and Italian financiers to go west and discover new lands.
He did so in 1497, when he landed on what is known today as Newfoundland.
In 1497 the English explorer John Cabot sailed through the waters off the coast of Newfoundland and was astounded at the incredible number of cod which surrounded his ship the Mathew. They had only to lower baskets into the ocean and let them fill with fish and retrieve a large catch. It was suspected that English fishermen may have already been fishing this area now known as the Grand Banks. Many other countries, such as France, Spain and Portugal, joined in the fishing banks for the summer seasons and established summer bases to salt and process the fish. (4)
Cabot’s ship was the “Matthew”, a caravel with 18 crew members. Today you can see its replica in Bristol, England.
So 500 years after the Vikings had landed on this land, Cabot did the same and brought in his journey back the good news to England and Europe.
Reports that Newfoundland and Labrador’s waters were rich in codfish were of interest to European governments for a variety of reasons at the turn of the 16th century. France, Portugal, and Italy all lacked sufficient supplies of protein for their populations, creating a demand for fish and meat imports on domestic markets. Cod was a good source of protein that preserved well and was easy to transport. Further, commercial fisheries were already an important part of the European economy and merchants could find buyers for new cod imports with relative ease by using existing trade networks. (6)
Sir Richard Whitbourne, who has spent thirty years of his life in Newfoundland, wrote in his “A Discourse and Discovery of Newfoundland” (1620):
“Although I well know, that it is an hard matter to perswade people to aduenture into strange Countries; especially to remain and settle themselues there, though the conditions thereof be neuer so beneficiall and aduantagious for them: yet I cannot be out of all hope, that when it shall bee taken into consideration, what infinite riches and aduantages other nations (and in partiuclar, the Spaniards and Portugals) haue gotten to themselues by their many Plantations, not onely in America, but also in Barbary, Guinnie, Binnie, and other places: And when it shall plainly appeare, by the following Discourse, that the Countrey shall plainly appeare, by the following Discourse, that the Countrey of New-found-land (as it is here truly described) is little inferior to any other for the commodities thereof; and lies, as it were, with open armes towards England, offering it selfe to be imbraced, and inhabited by vs: I cannot bee out of hope (I say) but that my Countreymen will bee induced, either by the thriuing examples of others, or by the strength of reason, to hearken, and put to their helping hands to that, which will in all likelihood yeeld them a plentifull reward of their labours.”
The transatlantic fishery further helped the European economy by creating jobs for workers directly and indirectly involved in the harvesting of fish. Alongside the thousands of people who travelled to Newfoundland and Labrador each year were the many more who manufactured nets, hooks, barrels, salt and other goods associated with the catching, processing, and packaging of fish. Other workers found employment with merchant firms selling cod to domestic and foreign markets. Alongside its economic benefits, the migratory cod fishery also became attractive to many European governments as a means of supplying skilled seamen to their navies and armadas. (6)
The French, Spanish and Portuguese fishermen tended to fish on the Grand Banks and other banks out to sea, where fish were always available. They salted their fish on board ship and it was not dried until brought to Europe. The English fishermen, however, concentrated on fishing inshore where the fish were only to be found at certain times of the year, during their migrations. These fishermen used small boats and returned to shore every day. They developed a system of light salting, washing and drying onshore which became very popular because the fish could remain edible for years. Many of their coastal sites gradually developed into settlements, notably St. John’s, now the provincial capital. (10)
The Northern Cod were so plentiful that until the late 50’s over 250,000 tons was caught on an annual basis. The Canadian fishing industry would traditionally fish just off the coast in smaller vessels using traditional methods such as jigging from a dory or small inshore gill nets. In the late 50’s the arrival of large factory ships from other countries hailed the first onslaught to the finely balanced renewable cod fishery. (4)
Scientists, policy makers, and fishermen say the commercial extinction of cod here began after World War II, when factory-sized trawlers, first from Europe and then from Canada, began vacuuming up the seas. As the massive ships took in well over a billion pounds of cod a year, rising global temperatures began melting Arctic ice, cooling the surrounding waters and severely stressing the thinning stocks, fisheries scientists in Newfoundland said. Other sources of food for cod, particularly a type of smelt called capelin, also began to decline sharply. (3)
The world’s largest freezing trawler by gross tonnage is the 144-metre-long Annelies Ilena ex Atlantic Dawn, presently alongside Killybegs harbour, having been detained in November 2013 by the Irish Navy and the Sea Fisheries Protection Agency for breach of regulations. She is able to process 350 tonnes of fish a day, can carry 3,000 tons of fuel, and store 7,000 tons of graded and frozen catch. She uses on board forklift trucks to aid discharging. (9)
The vessel sparked a political controversy after it was built in Norway and delivered to Ireland in 2000 for late skipper and fleet owner Kevin McHugh at a time when the European Commission was trying to reduce overall fleet sizes. (8)
With the arrival of these foreign fleets and the huge increase in their ability to net the fish, the annual catch, in 1968 increased to over 800,000 tons. At this level the cod were not able to renew their numbers and the available cod began to decline so that by 1975 the annual catch had declined to 300,000 tonnes. (4)
It was these floating fish factories owned by Canadian, Spanish and Portuguese corporations (plus other EU countries) that fished the northern cod to the brink of extinction before moving on to do the same with other species in South America and West Africa. (2)
The fishing technology had also taken another destructive leap in catch power by with deployment and use draggers. These ships dropped huge nets that were dragged along the bottom of the ocean which caught everything in its path and destroyed the underlying eco-system in the process. Fish, young fish, other sea life and the food source for the cod were all being destroyed in order to keep the catch rate on the rise. The entire eco-system was upset and destabilized. Much of the cod that was caught were spawning fish and hence the reproductive cycle was also disrupted. (4)
Ironically, the establishment of the 200-mile limit in 1977 by Canada did more to destroy the Newfoundland fishery than protect it. With the new limit the government encouraged, licensed and financed fisherman and fish companies to build bigger boats and enterprises to exploit the new fishing zones. A 400-year-old passive fishery became an active and aggressive hunting enterprise. They were encouraging overfishing.(2)
Where do we stand now?
There is still cod in the Atlantic. For example, off the coast of Maine, in the USA.
Also there is cod in the North Sea.
There is also some good news.
Whole Foods, a USA food market chain, announced in April 2012 that they would stop selling fish caught in a way that depletes its stock.
“Stewardship of the ocean is so important to our customers and to us,” said David Pilat, the global seafood buyer for Whole Foods. “We’re not necessarily here to tell fishermen how to fish, but on a species like Atlantic cod, we are out there actively saying, ‘For Whole Foods Market to buy your cod, the rating has to be favorable.’ ” (7)
Cod caught by trawlers in nets that drag nets across the ocean floor will no longer be bought and sold by Whole Foods.
A lot more needs to be done.
2. The day the fishery died. By Greg Locke. Herald, Arts and Life.
3. In Canada, cod remain scarce despite ban. By David Abel. Boston.com
4. Cod collapse. Canada History.
5. The international fishery of the 16th century. Newfoundland Heritage.
6. Origins of migratory fishery. Newfoundland Heritage.
7. A ban on some seafood has fishermen fuming. The New York Times.
8. Former Atlantic Dawn ship detained in Irish waters. The Irish Times.
9. Factory Ship. Wikipedia.
10. Cod fishing in Newfoundland. Wikipedia.
Δευτέρα, 21 Απριλίου, 2014
Angelopoulos’ movie is not a journey to a destination.
It is a journey to infinite emptiness.
Spiros is a Greek who fought with the losing side of the Greek Civil War in 1946-1949.
After spending many years in exile, presumably a republic of Soviet Union, he returns to Greece.
He arrives alone, with a suitcase and his violin, aboard a ship named “Ukraina”.
His son and daughter are waiting for him at the port and drive him to his wife’s house, where old friends and relatives have gathered to welcome him.
But things turn sour from the very beginning.
Minutes after Spiros arrives at the house, his reunion with his wife, Katerina, turns into a disaster.
It was something he said to her when they were alone.
Spiros leaves the house without uttering a word.
Later Spiros recounts his stay in exile: “and one day a woman prepares a meal for you, she mends your shirt… so I have two kids up there”.
After spending a night at a hotel, Spiros, Katerina, his son and daughter embark on a journey to Spiros’ village.
The village is where he lived and fought during the civil war.
Upon entering the village, he meets his arch enemy Antonis, who greets him by saying “we both lost”.
The village appears deserted.
Most of the inhabitants have left, and are now ready to sell their land to an “investor”.
Spiros refuses to sign the sale documents and causes the whole deal to break.
Instead of being a “nice old guy who made a mistake but now is back and harmless”, Spiros is a “bad guy, who does not understand the new Greece, and creates problems”.
He therefore has to be expelled.
Spiros and Katerina leave the village before the police come, but they are found at a railway station.
The police take Spiros into custody and lead him to the port.
But the ship has sailed, another that is just moving out of the port refuses to take him on board, and the only solution for the authorities is to take him out on a platform that rests in international waters.
Later Katerina joins Spiros on the platform.
She wants to be with him.
A little while later, Spiros releases the rope that ties the platform to an anchor, and the platform slowly moves out.
To infinite emptiness.
Spiros does not belong to modern Greece. And modern Greece does not want him there.
The lonely prophet of Rupture is now a freak in the eyes of “society”.
This is why Spiros’ wooden hut on top pf the mountain is burned by unknown villagers.
His refusal to sell this patch of land destroyed the deal with the winter ski center investor.
Before leaving the village Spiros goes to the graveyard and dances.
It is a farewell dance to his comrades, to the past.
After all, he only exists in the past.
His fellow villagers scorned him after he refused to sign the land deal, saying: “You do not exist. You were condemned to death four times.”
What sets the stage for the finale of the movie is Spiros’ monologue.
“I hear you coming, Death. I escaped from you five times: five wars, prisons, the execution squad. I escaped from you. I hear you, I hear you coming, I hear you.”
“σε ακούω θάνατε που έρχεσαι. Σε ξεγέλασα πέντε φορές: πέντε πόλεμοι, φυλακές, το στήσιμο στον τοίχο. Σε ξεγέλασα. Σ’ακούω, σ’ακούω που έρχεσαι, σ’ακούω”.
Questions and afterthoughts
The importance of Greek Civil War in the development of Greece is unquestionable.
But has not been explored to the full yet.
The economic and social crisis that started in 2008 and continues is not accidental, nor is it unrelated to the legacy of the civil war.
I claim that one of the key components of this legacy is the blueprint of “economic development a la Greque”.
Foreign powers and institutions give a bundle of money, a package so to speak, to Greece.
The package is used to solidify the power of the ruling elite, strengthen the armed forces, and leave some funds for distribution to cooperating citizens.
This blueprint was enhanced by Andreas Papandreou to its “socialist” version, meaning that money were distributed to a wider spectrum of people, and a new elite was formed.
But the blueprint remained the same. More in another post.